Internship

table of contents
CONTENTS                                                                                                                    Page
AKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABSTRACT
1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………
1.1. Background of the organization…………………………………………………….
1.2. The main task of the organization……………………………………………………
1.3. Objectives of the organization………………………………………………………
1.4. Mission and vision of the organization…………………………………………….
1.5. Practical attachment and its objectives……………………………………………
2. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………
3.discussion………………………………………………………………..
3.1. Onion production, marketing and its value chain ……………………………….
3.2. The common practice of onion production……………………………………….
3.3. Methods of onion production…………………………………………………….
3.4. Onion marketing…………………………………………………………………
3.5. Market and marketing problems…………………………………………………
3.6. Value chain map of onion………………………………………………………
3.7. Major problems identified during the field survey………………………………
3.8. SWOT analysis of the organization……………………………………………
4. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ……………………..
4.1 summary……………………………………………………………………………
4.2. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………
4.3. Recommendations………………………………………………………………..
5. REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………

Acknowledgments
First and for the most, I would like to thanks the charity, kindness, help and for givens of almighty God. Secondly, I would like to express my deepest thanks and appreciation to my field supervisor Ato Fenta for his unreserved comments, guidance, correcting detail evaluation and helping materially even scarifying his time for writing, editing and who play a great role for the smartness of my paper. Most importantly I would like to express my grateful thanks and heart felt appreciation to all my family particularly (to my father Ato Tigabu Kasaw, to my grandmother W/o Zritu Nigus, to my sister Melkamhiwot Tigabu, to my aunt Meseret Nigus and to all the rest of my families) for their unlimited efforts in providing financial, material and moral support for my academic success in general and for accomplishment of this paper in particular. I have no words to express my thanks and respect to them.
Last but not, least my gratitude also goes to all my friends specially (to Ali Ahmed for his writing and editing of my paper and for giving me his computer and to Aster Amman who make my life and my existence here in the campus so beautiful.) to all my classmate students particularly for all my doormats who contribute in the success of my academic and accomplishment of my paper ideally and materially.

Abstract
This practical attachment analyses the role of kobo girana valley development project in the alleviation of poverty in north wello, north western Ethiopia. It studies the impact of the project programs on livelihood, onion production, onion marketing, sales channel of onions, government intervention on production and marketing of onion and strength, weakness opportunity and threats of the project towards the production and productivity of vegetable production particularly in onion production.it specifically focus on onion production and marketing in kobo valley although the project works at different areas. This work also identifies the major constraints of onion production and marketing and gives policy intervention and recommendation towards tackling the identified problems.

1. INTRODUCTION
Ethiopian economy greatly depends on agriculture. More than 85% Ethiopia population are living on it. Agriculture contributes more than half of a country GDP. Ethiopia being predominantly rural in character, with agriculture the main economic activity, the conclusion is inevitable that is the search for significant increased rate of economic and social development. Special attention should have to be accelerated if employment, human and social development and rural industrialization are should be expanded and sustained.
Similar to other regions of the country in amhara regional state, agriculture is the main stay of the region’s economy. The government of the region has invested substantially to this sector in order to increase agricultural production. Kobo-Girana vally is one of the potential areas envisaged for development. The valley is suited in amhara region north wello administrative zone comprising 5 different weredas with a geographic coordinate of 11º 30´ -12º N and 39º 22´-39º 48´ and a total area of 2849.5 km2 with 5 different basin.
This practical attachment work consists of different field and market surveys, focus groups and individual meetings with farmers and interviews with some officials at zonal and wereda level. The report also contains the production, transportation, marketing and different value chain actors with regard to onion production in the project area
Background of the organization
KGVD program is an area under the north wello administration consisting of kobo, gubalafto, habru and gidan weredas. It is one of the rural development projects established by ANRS in 1999 to implement a rural development based on the maintenance and utilization of the natural resource of the valley. The program office is located in the lower flat plain of kobo wereda in kobo town about 575 km from addis ababa along the dessie-mekele highway. The program area is located in the lower flat plain of kobo-girana valley. The valley extends from 11º 30´ -12º N latitude and 39 º 22´-39 º 48´ east longitudes. The total area of the valley is estimated to be 2849.5 km2. The program area is bounded by tigray region from north, south wello from south and afar region from the east. The program area is characterized by pronounced variation in scenery. The landscape can be addressed to have two main features namely, eastern and western terrain and the low lying flat plain squashed in between the two mountainous terrain.
The kobo-girana valley has diverse agro-ecological zones. The valley is found  in the dry and moist agro-ecological zone. The basic characteristics of this agro- ecological zone are relatively high population density, intensively cultivated land with a variety of crops. With better understanding of climatic reliability everybody will be able to do better job of weather sensitive activities. The need of climatic forecast, specifically for development activities, such as, agriculture for planning of short, medium and long-term economic benefits like designing of water supply and irrigation dams require better climatic information. The spatial distribution of rainfall in the valley varies greatly. The annual total rainfall range for kobo, weldiya and sirinka lies between 472-913mm, 544-1386mm and 455-1169mm respectively with mean annual rainfalls of 723mm ,1022mm and 918 in that order. The total population of the valley is 479,140 where 407,474 are rural and most making living on subsistence agriculture. Since the population  growth rate of the area is estimated to be 3% annually, the pressure on cultivable lands is rapidly increasing and as a result cultivation is practiced along steeper slopes of mountains under vagarious condition. Most of the people living in this valley earn their living from mixed farming. The farmers are dependent on rain fed agriculture but, recently modern irrigation using surface and ground water potential has been started.
The soils of kobo girana valley are developed recent alluvial-colluvial sediments derived from the adjacent mountain ranges. Generally there are two types of soil
; vertiosol ( black heavy clay soils) and fluvisols (medium textured soils with characterstic stratification). The clay soils usually occur in flat plains, whereas the loamy soils occur both in flat plains and steep mountain foot slopes. In general, soils of the entire valley could be regarded as productive with the exception of those of wetlands and steep foot slopes. North wello in general and the program area in particular is endowed with abundant water resources, both surface (river) and ground water. It consists of a large number of perennial rivers used for irrigation and other purposes. The kobo girana valley is in to two hydrological and five sub-basins based on their distinctive surface drainage characteristics. The major basins are danakil and awash, while the sub-basins are kobo, alaweha,sirinka, cheriti, hara and gelana. The kobo and alaweha sub-basins are the largest by and have high surface and ground water potential.

According to the hydrology study, ground water occurrence in the valley is related to the existing aquifers formed by basin fill segments and fractured basalts. A considerable amount of recharge to ground water is obtained both from direct precipitation and as run off from the potential and intermittent rivers originating in the western Ethiopian plateau. Other recharge sources include sub-surface flow from highlands and traditional irrigation. The same source revealed that most productive aquifers occur at relatively shallow depths between 20-60m in waja-golesha and in the hormat-golina plains in the kobo sub-basins.
The natural resource base such as land, water, forest and trees are the foundation of any economic development, food security and other basic necessities of the people. The natural resource base of Kobo-Girana valley is coming under increasing population pressure and inappropriate farming and management practices. Small-scale farmers, who depend on these resources, face serious threats from intensive cultivation, overgrazing and deforestation. Land use in the program area is dominated by long period traditional rain fed peasant farming system of individual holdings and grazing of livestock on communal grazing lands and foot slopes, i.e. mixed farming is dominating for a number of centuries. The valley plain area represents a high agriculturally potential area, with a high human and livestock population density, annual crop zone with examples of extensive areas having moisture deficit. Cultivated land is the dynamic land use types under rapid transformation with increasing human population. Livelihood strategies in the program area are usually vulnerable to various shocks, low yielding and barley subsist the ever increasing population. Low income, food insecurity, and incidence of poverty are peculiar characteristics of the livelihood systems reinforced by excessive environmental degradation due to over cultivation, population densities, deforestation and soil erosion.
The main tasks of the organization
The main tasks of the KGVDP include working to solve the rural development programs and poverty reduction, implementation of millennium development and transformation plan, gives extension service to farmers, supply of improved agricultural technologies for farmers and popularization of these improved technologies for different rural areas. The organization also distributes fertilizer and pesticides and gives training for the farmers how to use the distributed fertilizers and pesticides to be more productive. The organization also receives agricultural inputs and extends to rural farmers within the right time to increase production and productivity of agricultural products. They fulfill modern technology and farming system for farmers of rural areas and gives training for rural farmers to bring behavioral, social and attitudinal changes towards modern farming system and natural resource management. They also create relationship with different organization and participate on different organizations and meeting to exchange different experience.
Objectives of the organization
KGVD program are focused on key areas that would lead to short-term and long-term success, thus        
Implement the millennium development and transformation plan
To provide different products to export market
To solve the rural development problem and poverty reduction
To give extension support for farmers
To select high yielding resistance and tolerant varieties
To advice and provide appropriate pest and disease management
Enhance the dissemination and adoption of improved technology.
To popularize improved agricultural technologies
To provide national coordination of research and promote partnership and networking
To build capacity for agricultural research for development and  faster institutional innovation
To adapt and develop appropriate agricultural technologies that enhances productivity and quality of crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry to contribute to food security and economic development.
Mission and vision of the organization
Mission
The organization works with a mission of conducting a research that would provide market competitive agricultural technologies that contribute to increased agricultural productivity and nutrition quality, sustainable food security, economic development and conservation of the integrity of natural resource and the environment, and to provide a strong leadership in coordinating farmers and different stakeholders by taking a leading role in influencing agricultural policy development.  Using resource of the valley by implementing irrigation based agriculture and rain fed agriculture with the conservation of natural resource and supports the project farmer in order to meet their food self-sufficiency and eradicate poverty in the area.
Vision
To see improved livelihood of all the project farmers engaged in agriculture, agro-pastoralism  and pastoralism through market competitive agricultural technologies and to see a responsive and dynamic research effort that provides coordinated, effective and successful research and development services. To be a good exampler in valley development
Visible attempts of action being made by the organization
During my summer stay in KGVDP for the practical attachment I observed some attempts made by the organizations concerned bodies to meet their missions. Some of these activities were; the organization work focus on research but, they also undertake support process such as provision of extension support to farmers, they try to introduce new technologies to different rural areas by cooperating with agricultural offices at woreda and zonal level and provide agricultural inputs such as improved seed, fertilizers, pesticides.
Practical attachment and its objective
Practical attachment has been designed to provide the learners with adequate knowledge, skill, and attitude and to implement the concept of the theoretical class practically. In educational and training policy of Ethiopia, one of the major components of capacity building program is training of agricultural professionals that can bring agricultural transformation and development in many aspects. Practical attachment is basic agricultural guidelines which helps senior graduating students to see real world visually and touch or practice physically what they learnt in class room during their stay at higher institutes and universities.
Objectives of the practical attachment
To familiarized students with the working environment
To enable students gain field experience
To learn the way of interacting and asking questions on practical aspects of the overall agricultural activities.
To expand students understanding and critical thinking
Enable us to observe the practical working environment and share the new insight and knowledge we gain
To improve students confidence in problem solving
To gain practical experience
To create opportunities to meet and work with potential employees

Methodology
2.1. Description of the area
Raya kobo is one of the 126 rural districts in the region and one of the twelve in the zone, north wello. It has an area of 197,405 hectares comprises of 36 rural Kebeles and 6 towns. A total population of 567,140 of which 93% households engaging in agriculture are living in the district. The capital is called kobo and is located in dessie-mekele high way. The practical attachment was carried out in Kobo irrigation sites for two consecutive months of July and August for onion . Kobo research station is situated at 12.08º N latitude and 39.28ºE longitudes at an altitude of 1470 masl.
The 15 years mean annual rainfall is about 630 mm and average daily reference evapotranspiration rate of 5.94 mm. The soil type in the experimental site is silly clay loam which has average infiltration rate of 8 mm/hr, pH value of 7.8.
2.2. Source and data collection methods
The methodology that I have been using in doing my practical attachment work was aimed at defining and describing the concept, role and objectives of the practical attachment and my field of study to the managers of the organization. Getting the will of the organization, I identify methods to overcome constraints and make the use of the existing potential. I discovered, appreciated and prioritized the existing potential and constraints of the organization.
Primarily, I focused on the collection of secondary data. I tried to review different literatures and preparation of different detailed practical survey and plan for what is going to be done was prepared. Secondly, I concentrated in the way to obtain primary data regarding the situation. To obtain primary data, interviews with farmers, government officials at wereda and zonal level.
Having done the above, the final result shows that land holding size, input use, average output yield, and production system etc of the project area together with the identified production constraint by the household. actually there are some limitations in the accuracy of the data as respondents are not in the habit of any recording and the data and the data has been collected from their memory.

DISCUSSION
Onion production, marketing and its value chain in KGVDP
Onion is one of the bulb crops belonging to the family Alliaceae. It is considerably important in the daily Ethiopian diet. All the plant parts are edible, but the bulbs and the lower stems sections are the most popular as seasonings or as vegetables in stews. Onion prefers well-drained sandy loam with a high content of organic matter. The optimum altitude range for Onion production is between 700 and 2200 m.a.s.l. and the optimum growing temperature lies between 15o C and 23o C. its primary origin lies in central Asia. Best soil for onion production is deep friable and loam soil with an optimum pH range of 5.8 to 6.5. Onion is vegetable crop grown worldwide.
Onion is considered as one of the most important vegetable crops produced on large scale in Ethiopia. It also occupies an economically important place among vegetables in the country. The area under onion is increasing from time to time mainly due to its high profitability per unit area and ease of production, and the increases in small scale irrigation areas. The crop is produced both under rain fed in the meher season and under irrigation in the off season. In many areas of the country, the off season crop (under irrigation) constitutes much of the area under onion production. Despite areas increase, the productivity of onion is much lower than other African countries. The low productivity could be attributed to the limited availability of quality seeds and associated production technologies used, among the others. For the supply of such seeds, the informal sector is playing significant role in outreaching large number of farmers. Most of the demand for onion seed is either meets by private sectors or unorganized program and imported Seeds. The formal sector, Ethiopian Seed Enterprise (ESE) is not generally supplying onion seed. Limited amount is catered by public sector organizations like Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) as popularization activities. The quality of seed supplied by the informal sector in most cases is not good enough. Most of the times there have been problems related to germination capacity of the seeds and true to type ness. The problem is further exacerbated by the short shelf life of onion seed (one year under favorable condition). Owing to these, producers are using 6- 8 kg of seeds per hectares opposed to the recommended rates of 3.5-4 kg/ha in order to guarantee good seedling emergence. This incurs more cost to farmers besides the ever increasing price of onion seed on the local markets. All these are hampering the advancement of onion production. Therefore, it becomes necessary to increase the supply of quality seed through participation of private sectors and farmers in onion seed production.
3.2. The common practices of onion production
In KGVDP district, the cropping season for onions begins in the month of October, after the offset of the rainy season. Most farmers choose to prepare their seedbeds during the dry season because most part of their land during the rainy season is over-flooded with rain water. The farmers prepare the seedbeds with great care. Once the seedbeds have been prepared, the farmers level the seed bed and distribute the seeds evenly across the surface of the bed. The seed bed is then watered and covered with grass or leafy branches of tree. The seeds germinate within 6 to 8 days after planted. Management of the seedbed needs careful operation. Approximately a week after germination, the seedbed must be weeded. This is a time consuming task and requires patience. The farmers must be careful to water the onion seedlings when necessary. After the seedbeds have been planted, the farmers prepare the land where the onion seedlings will be transplanted. The seedlings will be ready to be transplanted is 45 days after germination. First, the seedlings are pulled from the seedbed and placed in a basket made from local material. Usually they are covered with something to keep the delicate stems from direct sun rays. The labor for this task is separated by gender. The men make the holes following the rows for the plants, and they irrigate the rows before planting. The women and children plant the onions in the muddy rows, which must be kept wet to reduce high soil temperatures and facilitate the transplanting process. Transplanting onion seedlings is tedious and backbreaking work
Onion farmers in the study area do not keep the recommended spacing. They do not have any measurement to keep the spacing between plants and rows. Because of this there is no specific distance between both rows and plants. The distance between rows and plants is varying. Both sexes perform this task with amazing proficiency, the men are able to work long hours in making rows and watering the rows. Men and women are putting the thin stems of the seedlings of onion into the wet soil. In comparison with other local crops, such as maize, the tillage and planting requirements for onions are much more labour intensive. After the transplanting has been completed, the farmers must monitor field conditions cautiously. Timely irrigation of the early crop is essential. Two weeks after planting, the farmers begin the first important weeding operation. The hoe is also used to remove any emerging weeds. Some farmers will apply the first urea fertilizer during this period. Both male and female laborers do this task. The second weeding operation is done after 4 to 5 weeks of transplanting. Once this final mechanical operation has been completed, the farmers’ primary concerns are timely irrigation to maintain adequate soil moisture and conducting a careful assessment of the onion field to control insect pests and diseases. As onion bulbs increase in size, the onion leaves begin to collapse. This occurs 80 to 120 days after planting, depending on the variety. During the harvesting time labor is divided by gender. Men dig out the onion bulbs with a pick and make piles of the plants. The women and children cut the foliage from the onion and package the bulbs in large sacks. This operation is one of the very labor-intensive activities of onion production.
3.3. Methods of onion production
There are two methods of onion seed production. Seed to seed and bulb toseed method; both can be used in seed production. But the bulb to seed is the most commonly used method in Ethiopia. This method has a number of merits; options of selection of bulbs of good size, uniform, typical color, free from diseases and physical damages. It produces several stalks per bulbs hence gives higher seed yield. This is in conformity with experiences where seed yields up to 20 qt/ha was obtained on farmer’s field for the variety Bombay red. The method is also good to maintain the variety identity. However, in this method it takes 10-11 1/2months to produce seed (4 – 4 1/2 months for bulb production and 6-7 months for seed set and maturity). The seed to seed method lacks the above mentioned merits. It also produces less flower stalk per bulb. But it takes 7-8 months to produce seed.
3.5. Production interventions
To increase production and productivity of irrigated vegetables, attention was paid to:
Irrigated vegetable area expansion
agro economic improvements
To improve productivity, the project • partners introduced improved varieties, better agronomic practices (double row, staggered planting) and improved water utilization e.g. (from flood to furrow).
Existing irrigation/water resources can be divided into resources that can be exploited through gravity force and various water lifting devices. Interventions for both types of irrigation/water resources were aimed at expanding the areas of irrigated crops as well as improving productivity or yield.
3.5. Onion marketing
After onion has been harvested and bagged, farmers are primarily concerned with getting their crop to market and the day-to-day fluctuations that occur in the market price. The primary constraints to profitability for onion farmers in the district are poor post-harvest and marketing techniques. Almost all farmers in the district did not apply post-harvest techniques to improve the marketability of their crop. Farmers do not cure/treat onions to increase the shelf life. These
Untreated onion bulbs have fresh, open wounds at the neck where the green foliage was cut from the bulb. Such wounds, combined with poor handling techniques cause the onions to decay quickly once they have been bagged for transport. Some onions will sprout green foliage after only several days. Others will become infected by various decay-causing organisms, which quickly rot the inside of the onion and make it unfit for sale. Farmers have a short period of time to get their crop to market. They are, therefore, more susceptible to fluctuations in the market price, as they do not have the comfort of waiting time until the price has reached a satisfactory level. Onion will pass through different hands many times from the moment it leaves the farm until it arrives to the consumers. In the study area, there are three primary ways in which an onion crop is transported to the town. The first and most frequent one is a bagged onion is loaded on camel back; the second one is women loaded on their back and men loaded on their Shoulder. The third one is a lorry known as Isuzu can load some products directly from the individual farms. Often times the Isuzu loading is in contact with the middle men through telephone. The middlemen visit different farms and try to buy recently harvested onions. Since the farmers have a limited time to store the onion bulbs they are subjected to sell their products with minimum price for the middlemen. Sometimes a group farmer rent a lorry and transports their onion bulb to the nearest town market to avoid the market sabotage of middlemen. Onion farmers in the study area have different market outlets from kobo town: those are weldia, alamata, dessie and mekele markets. The major problems of onion marketing are unsatisfactory pricing where the wholesalers were mostly benefited and controlled the market, lack of functional organization among producers, the existing six irrigation cooperatives establishing with the aim of administering vegetable marketing do not have skill how vegetable marketing handled and how to increase their bargaining power; inadequate market information for producers was also another market problem mentioned in the study area. Every market information especially output price information first reaches to middle men. Because of this the poor farmers were always remaining the hands of these middlemen in selling their products.
Marketing interventions
The project introduced marketing interventions, including:
Measures to increase market  transparency
Strengthening local level collective  market action
Introduction of post-harvest storage/• processing technologies
To explore market potentials, the project conducted value chain assessments with staff of the KGVDP, students and regional research institutes. The results of the studies were used to develop market interventions. Several studies indicate that farmers usually have very few buyers for their produce and therefore are mostly price takers. The project organized platform meetings with traders and producers, in which farmers were able to see and make contacts with more potential buyers. To increase market transparency the project also assisted by providing market information (through billboards or radio). It also linked producers to new/additional markets in particular for gubalafto and Alamata producers. Farmers in kobo use mobile phones for better price discovery. To further strengthen the bargaining power of farmers, project partners assisted in collective marketing action by aggregating produce in a central place. In kobo this was organized by the cooperative. Attempts to involve the kobo cooperative in the actual purchase and sale of vegetables were not successful. However, traders gradually offered a higher price to compete with better prices offered by the local onion producers cooperative.
Sales Channels for Onions
Many farmers sell onions straight from the field, preferably to the rural collectors (who purchase the product for loading from farm to storage house) and/or representatives of storage companies who save the onions for winter. These two categories of buyers pay a price above average wholesale market price, but their requirements are also higher. They pay premium over the wholesale price if a large lot can be offered by one or several farmers.They also tend to come to the fields themselves and not use the services of middlemen.The farmers prefer to sell the onions in large lots as this maximizes their earningsand saves the time they would spend in the market if retailing their product. Many farmers also try to hold the onions for later sales dictated by cash flow needs.
3.6. Market and market problems
The study shows the need for interventions to improve the seasonal mismatch in demand and supply and facilitate linkages between producers and potential buyers in the nearby towns. Despite high demand for vegetables in major towns within a 50 km radius accessible on all-weather roads, the majority of small farmers sell their product on-farm largely through brokers who are not accountable for their practices. Only 14% of producers move their products to potential buyers in market in the district town. The number and type of market problems faced by farmers indicate the weak support to marketing compared to support they get for production. Moreover, skills in adding value through sorting, grading, packing, transporting and improved storage were little developed. Prices farmers received during the production year fluctuated widely both across seasons and sellers farmers. Onion price doubles or declines by half between high and low supply seasons. More strikingly, onion prices decline by four times during peak production. Price differences across seasons are explained mainly by demand and supply.
Price differences are also observed within same season.  Difference in access to market information or capacity to use it and farmers’ technical skill to extend storage that can prolong the time of sale, and add value through grading and standardization, explain part of the difference in prices farmers received within the same season.
3.7. Observable (Measurable) achievements
The combined interventions by project partners had a major impact on the expansion of irrigated vegetables in the districts. Such expansion can be seen at the individual household as well as district levels. The two most significant input supply interventions which contributed to the expansion of irrigated vegetable production are the supply of irrigation equipment and the production of improved onion seeds. The project’s own intervention in the supply of irrigation equipment was limited, since major efforts were onion seed production. Since bulb for seed production was not available year round in kobo, seed producers organized themselves to purchase bulbs from elsewhere in Ethiopia. Once the seed was produced, the project and partners facilitated linkages with buyers in and outside the districts. The regional authorities facilitated this process through testing and certifying the seeds.
The project linked producers with private and/or cooperative suppliers already made by the government or donor-funded programs. The project is still collecting data on the viability of providing repair and maintenance services to pump owners. The project’s attempts to introduce private pump operators to supply water at a commercial rate to neighboring farmers or group members kobo district did not succeed because most operators made enough money from irrigating their own plots to buy their own pumps. The most important input/service supply intervention for the development of the vegetable value chain by the project was the development of local onion seed production system, which showed a significant but fluctuating supply
Increasing participation of women in the vegetable value chain was encouraged through targeting women for knowledge and skills development in kobo District. A women’s field day was held to scale out this women focused approach/intervention. In kobo, alaweha and waja, some women started raising vegetable/pepper seedlings in small nurseries near their homes, to sell to their neighbors. Attempts to involve women in small scale grading and marketing  of onion  in kobo were not successful due to lack of sufficient demand.
Both government and the private sector have been involved in the supply of irrigation equipment. The government’s involvement is greatest in the supply of low cost water lifting devices such as treadle pumps. Government, donors, and the private sector are also involved in the supply of mortised pumps. The project facilitated the latter for kobo girana valley farmers by providing credit and linkages with private suppliers

3.8. Value chain of onion

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3.9. Major problems identified during the field survey
Onion production suffered from various constraints like low and erratic rainfall, low utilization of agricultural inputs, poor cultural practice, low access to improve and high yielding onion varieties, planting material, inadequate agronomic practice and poor water management. Lack of access to adequate and affordable rural credit including loans for inputs, investment in modern irrigation and improvements, tools and agricultural equipment are also production constraints. Rural credit is inadequate and when available they are not affordable by the majority of the farm households. Inadequate marketing infrastructure and communication services also inhibited crop production. Seasonal fluctuation of crop prices, increasing prices of basic farm inputs, lack of transport and road network, underdeveloped infrastructure, lack of access to market information, etc are the major problems limiting onion production. The rate of fertilizer use is very low 0.3 qt/hectare, very much lower than MoA recommended average rate about 150 Kg/hectar. Shortage of farm tools, oxen, and others are common problems for the poor farm households. There is no serious problem of oxen for cultivation. However, the oxen distribution among household is uneven and problem to the project farmer to accomplish farming activities on time. Generally the constraints in the project area are
Insufficient and uneven distribution of rainfall 
Low input supply
Inadequate and inappropriate extension service
Insufficient plant protection
Sever soil erosion particularly in mountainous and foot slopes
Shortage and improper supply of irrigation water
Absence of research and   demonstration work particularly in irrigation sector
Potentials for onion production
The lowland of kobo valley is relatively endowed with fertile alluvial soils. With improvements in traditional agronomic practices, expansion of modern small scale irrigation, the area can be a surplus producer and food self-sufficient within few years. Expansion of vegetable production is important potential investment opportunities for the private operators particularly in processing and packaging, distribution, warehousing, and transportation of these perishable commodities. Small scale pressurized irrigation is the most crucial potential area for boosting up agricultural production and improving the rural livelihoods in the project area. The flat topography of the majority of the project area, the availability of surplus ground water resource, rich experiences in intensive traditional irrigated agriculture and recurrent drought and fluctuation of rainfall on the other makes small scale modern irrigation the most important and hopeful agricultural technology in the kobo valley.
3.10. SWOT analysis of the organization
Strength
The organization made significant efforts to develop its human resource and have registered significant achievements through formal and informal training programs.
Projects will emerge from strategies of the organization and emerging issues.
Importation of new technologies receives the highest priority in the research system.
Availing appropriate technologies for model farmers.
Any project is geared towards the objectives of the organization.
Accountability and empowerment are signs of responsibility.
Projects are approved based on the gaps of the process.
Provision of skilled man power.
Gives support to different farmers.
Significant participation of women.
Weakness
Shortage of tangible information at time of need.
Lack of skilled ICT worker
Employers are not punctual day to day.
Some workers spend most of their time on Facebook or game
Sometimes the workers face load on their work and they become confused regarding the work they did before and they will do.
Low payment to day workers
Lack of adequate training to the employees
Lack of fair allocation of resources for all departments.
Improper use of resource
Lack of access to materials like printer ,network ( internet )

Opportunity
It has great opportunity to escape towards better investment.
It has a chance to amalgamate with education sector.
Mass media create awareness about modern agricultural technologies.
Promotion of other cooperatives that gives different services to the farmers.
The existence of high learning institutes and collages that trains agriculture to supply trained manpower hired in the organization.
Availability of daily laborers in low price.
Threats
High rate of population growth has a great effect on food security.
Most of the farmers are illiterate which cause low productivity.
Inflation and deflation of market price.
Lack of infrastructures such as road, clean water, electricity.
Spread of HIV/AIDS will decrease productive manpower.
Poverty

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION
Summary
The project area kobo grana valley, is one of the potential onion producing districts found in North eastern part of the Amhara regional national state. Kobo-Girana valley is on of the potential areas envisaged for development. The valley is suited in amhara region north wello administrative zone comprising 5 different weredas with a geographic coordinate of 11 30 -12 N and 39 22-39 48 and a total area of 2849.5 km2. The main tasks of the KGVDP include working to solve the rural development programs and poverty reduction, implementation of millennium development and transformation plan, gives extension service to farmers, supply of improved agricultural technologies for farmers and popularization of these improved technologies for different rural areas Onion is one of the bulb crops belonging to the family Alliaceae. It is considerably important in the daily Ethiopian diet. Onion is considered as one of the most important vegetable crops produced on large scale in Ethiopia. It also occupies an economically important place among vegetables in the country. The area under onion is increasing from time to time mainly due to its high profitability per unit area and ease of production, and the increases in small scale irrigation areas. In KGVDP district, the cropping season for onions begins in the month of October, after the offset of the rainy season. Most farmers choose to prepare their seedbeds during the dry season because most part of their land during the rainy season is over-flooded with rain water. There are two methods of onion seed production. Seed to seed and bulb toseed method; both can be used in seed production. But the bulb to seed is the most commonly used method in Ethiopia. To increase production and productivity of irrigated vegetables, attention was paid to:
Irrigated vegetable area expansion
agro economic improvements
To improve productivity, the project • partners introduced improved varieties, better agronomic practices (double row, staggered planting) and improved water utilization e.g. (from flood to furrow).
The project introduced marketing interventions, including:
Measures to increase market  transparency
Strengthening local level collective  market action
Introduction of post-harvest storage/• processing technologies
Conclusion
Onion production in kobo-Girana valley has increased significantly for the past 5 years. It has momentous contribution in annual households’ income. Farmers grow onion crop for the purpose of selling to get cash. However, onion production is seriously affected by price fluctuation every year.
the main differences in adoption level of onion growers was also related to access to credit, frequency of visiting nearby town and perception towards the new practices of improved onion production package. Because of this those  households who did not access to credit, who have no chance to visit other society and who have negative perception on the practices of onion production package did not adopt or adopt some part of the package practices.
Onion production suffered from various constraints like low and erratic rainfall, low utilization of agricultural inputs, poor cultural practice, low access to improve and high yielding onion varieties, planting material, inadequate agronomic practice and poor water management. Lack of access to adequate and affordable rural credit including loans for inputs, investment in modern irrigation and improvements, tools and agricultural equipment are also production constraints.
In general, this study found that vegetable production has contributed to significant amount of income to sample households and brought change in their life. Farmers participated in group discussion articulated that they were benefiting from adoption of improved onion production and improving their way of life. The single most important improvement mentioned was the ability to send children to school, followed by improvements in housing condition.
To explore market potentials, the project conducted value chain assessments with staff of the KGVDP, students and regional research institutes. The results of the studies were used to develop market interventions.
Many farmers sell onions straight from the field, preferably to the rural collectors (who purchase the product for loading from farm to storage house) and/or representatives of storage companies who save the onions for winter.
The project linked producers with private and/or cooperative suppliers already made by the government or donor-funded programs.
Recommendation
Provision of credit for all and arranging field day visit and tour program with certain period of time in production season will be very much important to farmers to adopt new technology.
Strengthening and expansion of cooperatives is one means to enhance onion production in the area. Government should do a better job of it.
The local government extension and research system has to give a due attention to local seed growers in providing technical back up and in certifying the seed they produce to keep the quality of seed.
Much emphasis has to be given to improvement of marketing system particularly through cooperative unions. These cooperative unions should have to create reliable market price by communicate with other cooperatives found outside their localities.
Producers and extension agents need adequate skills in production management practices starting from seed selection to post harvest technology suitable at their level. Marketing principles, bargaining skills, business planning, quality management and post-harvest handling of horticultural products are some of the interventions needed in study area.
Low and fluctuating prices of vegetables can be addressed through greater market transparency (information, collective action, linkages) production planning, post harvesting handling.
Public sector investment in irrigation infrastructure and natural resource development is an essential component for expansion of irrigated onion production. Private investment in pumps is an economically viable intervention to stimulate expansion of irrigated onion production.
Certification of seeds is required to expand market opportunities beyond the production areas. Private sector small scale entrepreneurs can provide the necessary inputs for vegetable production.

REFERENCESS
FAO-crop diversification and marketing project, A Manual for Extension Agents and Seed Producers January 2010.
KGVDP 2012, the project fortune
Samuael Gebreselassie, Helping small farmers to commercialize: Evidence from growing onion and tomatoes for sale in central Ethiopia
Abrham Melesse Endalamaw, August 2009, OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF GROUND WATER IN KOBO VALLEY,
EASTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIAOptimum utilization of ground water in kobo valley eastern amhara, Ethiopia

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